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Computer Networks: Local Area Networks and Wider Area Networks



Computer Networks: Local Area Networks and Wider Area Networks

Some of the most important types of computer networks are the following:

A computer network may be located in a specific location or may be distributed over a broader geographic area.

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The network of computer systems located within the premises of an office or factory is called a local area network (LAN). The computer network that connects to remotely located network components is called a wide area network (WAN).

1. Local Area Networks (LANS):


LANs have become popular with the decreasing cost of computers and the availability of personal computers. LANs and computer networks that are usually dispersed within a single building or a group of buildings located so close together that they do not have to use public communication services for data transmission.

Wider Area Networks (WAN) connect systems that are widely dispersed over a larger geographic area and therefore the use of public communication services becomes almost imperative. A LAN can be connected to WAN through a gateway. A LAN can also be connected to another LAN using a bridge.

LAN Features:

The following are the special features of LAN:

a) Privately owned and managed by the user:

LAN is privately owned and is a user-managed network facility. Users authorized by the owner (business company) are accessed according to the access permissions granted to different users. Therefore, these networks are not subject to regulation by the state telecommunications authority.

b) Each device can communicate with another:

All devices on the LAN are connected to all other devices on the LAN. Therefore, all devices on LAN can communicate with each other. However, the method or route of communication may be different.

c) Flexible:

LAN structures are modular offering configuration flexibility. It is easy to add/remove any node. This LAN scalability helps to gradually increase the size of the network and reduce the initial investment.

d) Exchange of information resources:

In general, they were created with the main goal of interactive communication, access to corporate data and the exchange of expensive devices, such as special or high-speed printers, magnetic disks, external communication link equipment.

e) Network operating system:

LAN operations are controlled and monitored by network operating systems (NOS). The NOS joins together various LAN components, turning a group of independent computers into an integrated network. The most popular NOS are NETWARE, WINDOWS NT, SOLARIS and UNIX.

f) Lower transmission cost:

LANs generally use a cable line as a conduit for transmitting information. This cable line is exclusively owned and maintained by the LAN owner. Therefore, there are no transmission costs except the fixed maintenance cost of the wire line. This contrasts with the cost of transmission on wider area networks where transmission can take place over public networks such as telephone networks which may charge for each transmission.

The negligible (variable) cost of transmission on LANs helps promote more frequent interaction between users, thus improving communication within the group and within the company.

LAN structure:


A LAN can have the following components:

a) Database server,

b) Terminals for users,

c) Devices to be shared, such as specialized or high-speed printers, mass storage devices, etc.

d) Bridge to other LANs.

The database server generally stores the database for common use by multiple users communicating through their terminals. The database server also serves the purpose of an application server.

Shared printers and storage devices, such as hard drives and magnetic tapes, are accessible to users through the server. If the company also has other LANs installed, these LANs can be connected to each other with the help of devices called bridges.

A typical LAN for a sales department is shown in Figure 11.4.

LAN topology:

The relationship between multiple devices connected on a LAN is called topology. There are three commonly used LAN topologies, namely linear bus, ring and star. They are represented in figures 11.5 to 11.7.

In a bus topology, each user node is connected to a common transmission medium called a bus. Data packets are sent on this bus in a linear manner and their packet is picked up by the desired user node(s). Bus LANs generally use coaxial cable and the cost of cabling is very low. But, the cable length is limited to about 1000 feet.

Therefore, the spread of user terminals is limited. Another problem with bus LANs is that data privacy is difficult to maintain. However, they are very popular in applications where groups of users are using network management transaction information.

The ring topology is similar to the bus topology, except that the two ends are connected to form a ring. But, the message access method is different from that of bus LAN. The cost per user node is the lowest in this topology, but the speed is low.

Unlike bus LAN, the failure of a user node in the ring can cause transmission interruptions and a bypass is needed. Sometimes the physical location of user terminals may not be suitable for ring LAN as the two ends may be far away from each other and joining the two ends may be wasteful.

In Star LAN, each node is connected to a central node or server and communicates with each other through the central node. The nodes are connected to the central node with the help of twisted pair cables.

The basic advantage of star LAN is that it uses twisted pair cables and therefore the cost of cabling can be lower. However, the cable length increases substantially if the nodes are located far from the central node.

Reliance on a single central node makes it vulnerable to failures. During peak usage, there are chances of overcrowding and blocking of data traffic. This topology is not very popular today, except in cases where better monitoring and control systems are essential for the LAN.

It should be noted that there is no topology so superior to the other that it can be considered suitable for all network situations. However, Bus and Ring LANs are found to be the most popular topologies.

2. Wider Area Networks:


Wider area networks (WANs) are computer networks that connect computer systems in different parts of a country and even different parts of the world. These networks were previously used only by a few large multinationals. With advances in networking technology and the availability of service providers in the field, initial investments in WAN have reduced considerably.

As a result, more and more companies are now connecting their headquarters to their production, procurement and distribution centers spread across city limits and national boundaries.

WANs offer a unique service to improve inter-office communication, allowing managers to use their corporate resources most efficiently, while located in remote offices. WAN technologies have added one more dimension to the network and that is the global network.

These information highways have expanded the market for even the smallest companies and opened new avenues for doing business globally in ‘global villages’. The implications of the Internet on business and information systems deserve special treatment.

WAN Features:

WANs are different from LANs, not only in terms of geographic coverage but also in many other characteristics. These features are the following:

(i) Private and public:

The WAN may be owned by an individual commercial company to exclusively serve the communication needs of the owning companies. For example, the nonprofit Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Transactions (SWIFT) owns and maintains a WAN that meets the communication needs of its member banks. This WAN is not available for non-banking companies to use.

Similarly, SITA WAN is meant for communication between airline computers and SBNET caters to the communication needs of the State Bank of India. Additionally, there are public WANs that offer communication services to organizations that subscribe to them. These networks are common carriers for the international transmission of information. These include WANs such as DATAPAC, EURONET, TRANSPAC, etc.

(ii) Connects a variety of computer systems:

WANs are capable of communicating with a variety of computer hardware. They use different communication protocols to communicate with computer networks. One of the most popular protocols is Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

(iii) Subject to state regulation:

WANs are capable of communicating over a wider geographic area and can be accessed from most parts of the world. This raises the question of control over network usage. In order to check the use of the network for illegal activities, most governments exercise control over these networks.

(iv) Use of large computer systems:

Most WANs are based on mainframes and high-speed processors with large storage capacities. These involve a high initial investment and are quite expensive to maintain.

(v) Communication is through wireless transmission media:

Most WANs today use wireless transmission media, such as VSAT, to transmit information. They use high-speed transmission equipment.

(vi) Reliability:

Unlike LANs that place greater emphasis on transmission speed, reliability is the primary concern in WANs. The difference in emphasis is obvious. Long-distance transmission is more prone to the risk of information loss than short-distance transmission.

WANs have different types of structures depending on technology and ownership. Details about the different structures are beyond the scope of this book.

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Digital Entertainment Onionplay Vault: 26 Exceptional Alternatives To OnionPlay




Digital Entertainment Onionplay Vault: 26 Exceptional Alternatives To OnionPlay

The quest for quality entertainment is an unending journey in an increasingly digital and on-demand world. OnionPlay was a beacon for years, offering free access to a treasure trove of movies and TV shows. But in this vast digital landscape, the options are plentiful, and sometimes, it’s worth wandering off the beaten path to uncover unique gems. In this article, we’ll explore a collection of 26 outstanding alternatives to OnionPlay that promise to keep your screen time exciting and your entertainment cravings satisfied.

1. CMoviesHD: A Premium Streaming Experience

A competitor that sets itself apart with its seamless interface and premium-like experience is CMoviesHD. Unlike many other platforms, CMoviesHD strongly emphasizes providing users with an uninterrupted movie-watching journey by minimizing disruptive ads and pop-ups. Its user-friendly interface feels premium and efficient, making it a preferred choice among movie enthusiasts.

2. AZMovies: Timeless Classics And Modern Marvels

AZMovies is a time traveler’s delight. With an extensive catalog spanning from 1948 to 2020, it’s a portal that bridges the gap between the golden classics and the latest blockbusters. While its initial clicks might lead to ads, the lure of its rich movie selection makes it worth the minor inconvenience.

3. YesMovies: A Haven For Film Lovers

YesMovies has gained recognition as a trustworthy and user-friendly alternative to OnionPlay. Offering an extensive collection of films from various genres, this platform employs filters that help users narrow their choices based on preferences. The absence of intrusive pop-ups and third-party redirects contributes to a smooth viewing experience.

4. PutLocker: Navigating Cinematic Wonders

If navigating through a plethora of choices is your style, then PutLocker might be your next movie haven. With its organized categories and sections, including top-rated IMDB movies, top-viewed titles, and more, PutLocker makes it easy to delve into the cinematic universe and find your next movie night selection.

5. Afdah: Short Descriptions, Rich Selection

Afdah shines bright among OnionPlay’s alternatives with its concise movie descriptions, IMDB ratings, and posters. Its range includes everything from war epics to action-packed thrillers and even the latest blockbusters. A mobile-friendly interface ensures a seamless viewing experience regardless of your device.

6. LookMovie: A Gem For Quality And Variety

LookMovie is not just an alternative; it’s an upgrade. With an impressive database and a commitment to providing HD and LQ quality content, LookMovie stands out in the world of free movie streaming. Its ad-free environment, rare among free streaming sites, elevates the viewing experience and attracts users worldwide.

7. Movie4K: The Consistent Choice

When seeking a consistent alternative to OnionPlay, Movie4K emerges as a strong contender. Its straightforward layout and diverse content, ranging from drama to comedy and animated series, cater to a wide audience. While this platform doesn’t host videos directly, it efficiently directs users to third-party sources for their movie fix.

8. MoviezWap: A Well-Organized Movie Haven

MoviezWap’s organized approach makes it a worthy OnionPlay alternative. Categorized sections and navigational options on the header streamline the user experience. While registration is mandatory for accessing content, the lack of overwhelming ads and pop-ups is a breath of fresh air.

9. Vumoo: A Simple Pleasure For Movie Buffs

Vumoo offers an uncomplicated interface for movie enthusiasts seeking variety. With movies and TV series neatly divided into categories, Vumoo provides quality content without the need for user registration. While it might lack the bells and whistles of other platforms, its simplicity is a welcome feature for those who prefer straightforward navigation.

10. Movies4u: A Bollywood Bonanza

If Bollywood is your passion, Movies4u is your virtual Bollywood oasis. With a vast collection of newly released Bollywood movies, this platform caters to the cravings of Indian cinema lovers. Enjoy free access to the latest hits within days of release, making Movies4u a prime choice for Hindi movie buffs.

11. M4ufree: Streamlined Selections

M4ufree’s categorization and streamlined movie selection make it a valuable OnionPlay alternative. Offering a hassle-free viewing experience, M4ufree provides options to choose from based on genre, release date, and more. Its absence of misleading buttons and pop-ups ensures your movie journey remains enjoyable and interruption-free.

12. 123Movies: An All-In-One Destination

123Movies embodies the concept of one-stop entertainment. With an extensive collection of movies, TV shows, episodes, and even anime, this platform caters to all preferences. Its convenient sorting options, including genres and IMDb ratings, simplify the selection process, ensuring you find your desired content effortlessly.

13. Soap2Day: When OnionPlay Is Down

Soap2Day shines as a reliable alternative to OnionPlay, especially when the latter is unavailable. Offering high-quality movies and TV shows, Soap2Day’s short descriptions, IMDb ratings, and posters assist decision-making. With a user-friendly interface optimized for PCs and mobile devices, this platform ensures that your entertainment journey remains smooth.

14. Popcornflix: Quality And Convenience

For those who value quality and convenience, Popcornflix is a stellar OnionPlay alternative. With its well-organized layout and categorized sections, Popcornflix simplifies finding movies and TV shows. Navigating through top-rated IMDb movies, most-favored titles, and more is a breeze, making it a user-friendly and engaging platform.

15. ZMovies: Uncover Hidden Treasures

ZMovies may not be as popular as OnionPlay, but it’s a hidden treasure trove waiting to be discovered. Hosting various movies, this platform is perfect for those seeking classic films and modern marvels. Its user-friendly interface ensures an enjoyable movie-watching experience, and its curated collection ensures every visit is a cinematic adventure.

16. Yify: Quality Meets Variety

Yify stands out as a sought-after OnionPlay alternative by delivering the latest movies in excellent quality. With its neat interface and convenient search bar, Yify simplifies the movie selection process. Its inclusion of miniature summaries, as you click on thumbnails, aids decision-making, ensuring that you choose the perfect movie for your viewing pleasure.

17. Xmovies8: Easy Navigation, Engaging Experience

Xmovies8 caters to movie enthusiasts seeking easy navigation and an engaging movie-watching experience. Its user-friendly interface allows you to explore a wide range of movies and TV series. Xmovies8’s provision of multiple streaming options ensures that you enjoy your chosen content with the best possible quality.

18. Megashare: OnionPlay’s Mirror And More

Megashare is a mirror site alternative to OnionPlay, ensuring your movie-watching journey remains uninterrupted. Its straightforward structure aids in easy navigation, and while the site might require you to create an account, its vast selection of movies and TV shows makes it a valuable resource for entertainment seekers.

19. TubiTV: Seamlessly Pick Up Where You Left Off

TubiTV provides a unique feature that enhances the viewing experience—allowing users to pick up where they left off. While its initial clicks may lead to some video ads, TubiTV’s ad-free environment during movie streaming elevates the experience. Its curated sections, including top IMDB movies, make movie selection a breeze.

20. FMovies: A Global Library Of Movies And TV Series

FMovies is a robust alternative to OnionPlay, offering many movies and TV series worldwide. With categories spanning genres, countries, and release years, FMovies caters to diverse tastes. Its extensive content library ensures you’ll always have options for captivating entertainment.

21. PrimeWire: A Gateway To Cinematic Magic

PrimeWire, akin to OnionPlay, offers a gateway to cinematic wonders. After a simple registration process, users gain access to an impressive collection of movies and TV shows. Its genre-specific search feature aids in movie discovery, and the inclusion of trailers allows you to gauge your interest before delving into a film.

22. MovieNinja: A Better Upgrade

If OnionPlay is your benchmark, MovieNinja offers an upgrade you will want to take advantage of. With a massive movie and TV series database, MovieNinja provides an attractive design and slider featuring the latest releases. Its minimal display ads, along with its video ads, contribute to an enhanced movie-watching experience.

23. Noxx: A Hidden Gem

While not as well-known as some alternatives, Noxx offers a hidden gem among the OnionPlay alternatives. Its simplified layout and concise movie descriptions make movie selection a breeze. Despite potential initial ad clicks, the allure of its vast movie collection and easy navigation is undeniable.

24. Streamm4u: The Organized Oasis

Streamm4u’s organization sets it apart as a valuable alternative to OnionPlay. With a collection spanning various genres and years, Streamm4u ensures users can easily find their desired movies. While ads are present, they outweigh the experience, making it a worthy destination for movie enthusiasts.

25. Flixtor: Quality And Variety Rolled Into One

Flixtor caters to users seeking both quality and variety in their entertainment. Offering the latest hits and a user-friendly interface, Flixtor ensures a premium-like experience without needing an account. Its multi-server streaming option guarantees a seamless movie-watching journey.

26. 5Movies: An All-Inclusive Hub

5Movies, like OnionPlay, offers an all-inclusive hub for movie enthusiasts. This platform caters to diverse tastes by hosting classic movies, recent releases, dramas, and animations. Its high-definition and standard-definition options allow users to tailor their viewing experience to their internet quality.


As the curtain falls on the OnionPlay era, myriad alternatives stand ready to take its place. From streamlined user interfaces to expansive content libraries, these platforms offer various choices to satisfy your entertainment cravings. Whether you seek classics or the latest blockbusters, these alternatives promise a journey through cinematic wonders that are uniquely your own. If you also read about ZTEC100.Com through that blog.


Are these alternatives safe and legal?

While these alternatives offer access to free movies and TV shows, it’s important to note that some may operate in a legal gray area. Always exercise caution and consider the legality of the content you’re accessing. To ensure safety, use a reputable VPN and consider official streaming services that adhere to copyright regulations.

Do these alternatives require registration or payment?

Most alternatives provide free access to movies and TV shows without payment. However, some may request user registration to enhance the viewing experience. Be cautious when sharing personal information, and use disposable or secondary email addresses if necessary.

How can I protect myself from malware and viruses?

To protect yourself from malware and viruses, ensure your device has up-to-date antivirus software. Additionally, consider using ad and pop-up blockers to minimize the risk of unintentional clicks on malicious content. Avoid downloading files from untrusted sources and stick to reputable streaming platforms.

Can I use these alternatives on my mobile device?

Many of these alternatives are optimized for mobile devices, allowing you to enjoy movies and TV shows. However, be cautious when accessing streaming sites on mobile devices, as smaller screens may make it easier to click on ads or pop-ups accidentally.

How do I choose the best alternative for my preferences?

Choosing the best alternative depends on your preferences and priorities. Consider content variety, user interface, ad frequency, and video quality. Explore different alternatives, read user reviews, and assess the overall user experience to find the one that aligns with your entertainment needs.

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How to Download Instagram Videos Online with




How to Download Instagram Videos Online with

Instagram is one of the most popular social media platforms in the world, with over 1.5 billion monthly active users. It is a great place to share your photos and videos with your friends, family, and followers. However, sometimes you might want to download some Instagram videos to your device for offline viewing, editing, or sharing. Unfortunately, Instagram does not provide a native option to download videos from its app or website.

If you are looking for a simple and easy way to download Instagram videos online, you might want to check out is an online tool that allows you to download any Instagram video with just a few clicks. You can use it to download videos from public or private accounts, stories, reels, IGTV, or live streams. is fast, secure, and free to use.

What is is an online website that claims to provide a free and fast tool for downloading Instagram videos online. You can use it to download any video from any Instagram post, whether it is public or private. You just need to copy the Instagram link on this tool, and then you get the videos from this post. also offers some features, such as:

  • No login required: You do not need to log in to your Instagram account or sign up for to use this tool. You can download any video anonymously and safely.
  • High quality: You can download videos in the highest quality available on Instagram. You can also choose the format and resolution of the video according to your needs.
  • Multiple downloads: You can download multiple videos at once by using the batch download feature. You can also download all the videos from a user’s profile or a hashtag with one click.
  • Cross-platform: You can use on any device and browser. You can download videos to your computer, smartphone, tablet, or any other device.

How to Use

Using is very simple and straightforward. You just need to follow these steps:

  • Visit and paste the link of the Instagram video that you want to download in the input box.
  • Click on the “Download” button and wait for a few seconds.
  • Choose the format and resolution of the video that you want to download from the list of options.
  • Click on the “Download” button again and save the video to your device.

What are the Benefits of Using

There are many benefits of using to download Instagram videos online. Some of them are:

  • Save data: You can save your mobile data by downloading videos online and watching them offline later. You do not need to stream videos repeatedly and consume your data.
  • Edit videos: You can edit the downloaded videos with your favorite software or app. You can add filters, effects, music, subtitles, or anything else that you want.
  • Share videos: You can share the downloaded videos with your friends, family, or followers on other platforms. You can also upload them to your own Instagram account or other social media accounts.
  • Backup videos: You can backup your favorite videos on your device or cloud storage. You do not need to worry about losing them if they are deleted or removed from Instagram.

Conclusion is a powerful and convenient tool that can help you download Instagram videos online with ease. It offers a simple and easy way to download any video from any Instagram post, whether it is public or private. It also provides you with various features and benefits that can enhance your experience and enjoyment of Instagram videos.

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Cloud A Platform for Cloud Computing and Digital Transformation




Cloud A Platform for Cloud Computing and Digital Transformation

Cloud computing is a technology that allows users to access and use computing resources, such as servers, storage, software, and databases, over the internet. Cloud computing offers various benefits, such as scalability, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, security, and accessibility. However, cloud computing also poses some challenges, such as complexity, compatibility, reliability, and regulation.

To help users navigate the world of cloud computing and digital transformation, there is a platform called Cloud This platform is run by Aman Kumar, a person who is deeply passionate about sharing knowledge and experience with users and readers. The platform provides various information and insights related to cloud computing, digital transformation, artificial intelligence, analytics, customer experience, automation, and more.

What is Cloud

Cloud is a website that aims to provide valuable insights and information on cloud computing, digital transformation, and related topics. The website covers a wide range of topics that are relevant for users who are interested in cloud computing and its various applications. Some of the topics that are covered on the website are:

  • Information related to stock buyback and reason behind people using it.
  • Ways in which we can make money from cryptocurrency.
  • The 10 main reasons businesses fail to transform.
  • Ways in which we can manage corporate travel and expenses in 2023.
  • And many more.

The website also features various blogs and articles that talk about artificial intelligence, analytics, customer experience, automation, and other topics that are related to cloud computing and digital transformation. The website also provides clear references and suggestions for further learning for the users who want to dive deeper into the topics.

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What does Cloud offer?

Cloud offers a variety of benefits for the users who visit the website. Some of the benefits are:

  • Knowledge: The website provides a lot of knowledge and information on cloud computing and digital transformation that can help users to learn more about these topics and how they can apply them in their own businesses or careers.
  • Insights: The website also provides insights and opinions on cloud computing and digital transformation that can help users to understand the trends, challenges, opportunities, and best practices in these fields.
  • Inspiration: The website also provides inspiration and motivation for users who want to pursue cloud computing and digital transformation as their passion or profession. The website showcases success stories, case studies, interviews, and testimonials from experts and practitioners who have achieved remarkable results using cloud computing and digital transformation.
  • Interaction: The website also provides interaction and engagement for users who want to connect with other users who share the same interest in cloud computing and digital transformation. The website allows users to comment on the posts, share their feedback, ask questions, or suggest topics for future posts.

How does Cloud work?

Cloud works in a simple and user-friendly way. Users can access the website from any device that has an internet connection. Users can browse through the different categories of topics that are available on the website or use the search function to find specific topics that they are looking for. Users can also subscribe to the newsletter or follow the social media accounts of the website to get updates on the latest posts and news.

Users can read the posts and articles that are published on the website for free. Users can also comment on the posts or share them on their own social media platforms. Users can also contact the owner of the website through email or phone if they have any queries or suggestions.

Why should you visit Cloud

You should visit Cloud if you are interested in cloud computing and digital transformation or if you want to learn more about these topics. Cloud is a platform that provides valuable insights and information on cloud computing and digital transformation that can help you to enhance your knowledge, skills, performance, and results. Cloud is also a platform that provides inspiration and motivation for you to pursue your passion or profession in cloud computing and digital transformation. Cloud is also a platform that provides interaction and engagement for you to connect with other like-minded users who share your interest in cloud computing and digital transformation.


Cloud is a platform for cloud computing and digital transformation that offers various benefits for its users. The platform provides knowledge, insights, inspiration, interaction, and more on cloud computing and digital transformation. The platform is run by Aman Kumar, a person who is deeply passionate about sharing knowledge and experience with users and readers. The platform covers a wide range of topics that are relevant for users who are interested in cloud computing and its various applications. The platform is easy to access and use and provides clear references and suggestions for further learning.

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